In technical term, Sensors are commonly knowns as device or equipment which detect changes in its environment and convert that information in electrical form for further process.
In our normal life, we used different types of sensors that are commonly used in various applications. All these sensors are used for measuring one of the physical properties like Temperature, Resistance, Capacitance, Conduction, Heat Transfer, etc.
In this article, we have seen different types of sensors along with their practical applications. There are a few types of sensors such as temperature sensors, Infrared sensors, Proximity Sensors, Pressure Sensors, Level Sensors, Smoke and Gas Sensors, Ultrasonic Sensors, and Touch Sensors are commonly used in most of the electronics applications.
A temperature sensor is a device, typically, a thermocouple or RTD, that provides for temperature measurement through an electrical signal. In other words, A temperature sensor is a device that detects and measures hotness and coolness and converts it into an electrical signal.
There are different types of Temperature Sensors like LM35 IC, Thermistors, Thermocouples, RTD, etc. Temperature Sensors are used everywhere like computers, mobile phones, automobiles, air conditioning systems, industries etc.
An infrared sensor (IR) is an electronic device, that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detects the motion. These types of sensors measure only infrared radiation, rather than emitting it that is called a passive IR sensor.
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Different applications where IR Sensor is implemented are Mobile Phones, Robots, Industrial assembly, automobiles etc.
A proximity or presences sensor is the one that is able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. They usually emit electromagnetic radiations and detect the changes in the reflected signal if any.
Proximity sensors are also used in machine vibration monitoring to measure the variation in distance between a shaft and its support bearing. This is common in large steam turbines, compressors, and motors that use sleeve-type bearings.
A pressure sensor is a device for pressure measurement of gases or liquids. Pressure is an expression of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area.
A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed. Pressure sensors can also be used to indirectly measure other variables such as fluid or gas flow, speed, water level, and altitude.
A level sensor is one kind of device used to determine the liquid level that flows in an open system or closed system. The level measurements can be available in two types namely continuous measurements and point level measurements.
The continuous level sensor is used to measure the levels to a precise limit, but they give correct results. Whereas point level sensors used to determine the level of liquid whether that is high or low.
An ultrasonic sensor is an instrument that measures the distance to an object using ultrasonic sound waves. An ultrasonic sensor uses a transducer to send and receive ultrasonic pulses that relay back information about an object’s proximity.
Ultrasonic sensors can be used for measuring wind speed and direction, tank or channel fluid level, and speed through air or water. For measuring speed or direction, a device uses multiple detectors and calculates the speed from the relative distances to particulates in the air or water.
Smoke and Gas Sensors:
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial security devices issue a signal to a fire alarm control panel as part of a fire alarm system, while household smoke detectors, also known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself.
Touch sensors are also called as tactile sensors and are sensitive to touch, force or pressure. They are one of the simplest and useful sensors.
The working of a touch sensor is similar to that of a simple switch. When there is contact with the surface of the touch sensor, the circuit is closed inside the sensor and there is a flow of current.
When the contact is released, the circuit is opened and no current flows. Touch sensors are used in a wide range of display applications, from smart homes and appliances to security and industrial solutions.
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